Archived Pages from 20th Century!!
The Ancient City of Athens
All images ©1995 by Kevin T. Glowacki & Nancy L. Klein
Department of Classical Studies
Indiana University, Bloomington, In 47405
THE ANCIENT CITY OF ATHENS is a photographic archive of the
archaeological and architectural remains of ancient Athens (Greece). It
is intended primarily as a resource for students of classical languages,
civilization, art, archaeology, and history at Indiana University who may
wish to take a "virtual tour" of the chief excavated regions and extant
monuments. We also hope that this site will be useful to all who have an
interest in archaeological exploration and the recovery, interpretation,
and preservation of the past.
All of the images presented here are from the personal slide collection
of Kevin T. Glowacki and Nancy L. Klein. You are free to download and use
unmodified copies of these images for non-commercial purposes providing
that you include a reference to this site and copyright notice. If you
use any of these images for presentations or papers, or have any comments
or suggestions, we would appreciate hearing from you by email or post.
(We especially enjoy email from students & teachers in grade school
& high school!)
Topography & Monuments of Ancient Athens
When archaeologists use the term "topography" in their work, they usually
mean a combination of several different subjects, including 1) the geography
& natural resources of a country, 2) the architectural form of a city
as it develops over several centuries or even millenia, and 3) the study
of different functional areas within a city or its countryside, such as
sanctuaries, civic centers, marketplaces, workshops, private houses, &
cemeteries. A student of "topography" must be prepared to dabble in subjects
such as architecture, art, literature, history, epigraphy, numismatics,
religion, politics, physical anthropology, and geology, as well as having
an understanding of the methodologies of archaeological excavation and
regional survey. Hence, "topography" can be a truly interdisplinary adventure,
full of all the things that make classical archaeology such an exciting
field to study.
One of the most important sources for the topography of Athens (in particular)
and Greek archaeology (in general) is an eye-witness account written by
the traveler Pausanias in the 2nd century A.D. Pausanias spent several
years traveling throughout Greece and he recorded many fascinating details
about the famous cities, temples, and monuments -- which were already considered
ancient even in his own day! Athens was one of the first places he visited
on his journey and his description of the city provides us with some invaluable
clues about the location, form, decoration, function, and historical significance
of many prominent monuments. (It provides us with some problems too, since
the evidence from modern archaeological excavation does not always readily
agree with what Pausanias records. Is it a matter of physical preservation?
Or a problem with our methods of archaeological interpretation? Or could
it be that sometimes Pausanias and/or his tour guides got a few of the
"facts" mixed up -- a phenomenon all too familiar to any modern traveler
who has tried to absorb all of the sights & sounds & history of
one of the great cities of the world!).
Of the many possible ways in which THE ANCIENT CITY OF ATHENS
could have been organized, we have chosen to present the monuments in essentially
the same order as they were visited by Pausanias. For each section, we
have also provided a "link" to an English translation of Pausanias from
the PERSEUS Project
(a great website where you can learn much more about ancient Greek culture,
literature, history, and art!). Although not everything mentioned by Pausanias
has been preserved, and despite the fact that Pausanias tended to omit
monuments of the Roman period (which were, after all, "modern" as far as
he was concerned), we think that this is a natural and effective way to
structure our "virtual tour" of the city. KALO TAXIDI!
Kerameikos Cemetery, Public & Private Grave Monuments, "Themistoklean"
Wall, Sacred Gate, Dipylon Gate, Pompeion.
Commercial & Civic Center of Ancient Athens: Royal Stoa, Stoa of Zeus
Eleutherios, Temple of Apollo Patroos, Metroon, Bouleuterion, Tholos, Monument
of the Eponymous Heroes, Hephaisteion, Altar of the 12 Gods, Stoa of Attalos,
Church of the Holy Apostles.
The Roman Agora,
Tower of the Winds, & the Library of Hadrian: Gate of Athena Archegetis,
Colonnade, Fountain, Propylon, "Agoranomion", Public Latrines; Water Clock
of Andronikos, The Eight Winds.
The North Slope
of the Akropolis: "Longs Rocks" & the Northwest Caves (Caves of
Apollo & Pan), Sanctuary of Eros & Aphrodite, Rock-cut Niches,
The East Slope
of the Akropolis: East Cave, Rock-cut Beddings for Altars & Monuments,
The "True Aglaureion"?
& Southeast Athens: Temple of Olympian Zeus, "Peisistratid" column
drums, Panathenaic Stadium.
of the Tripods and the Lysikrates Monument.
Slope of the Akropolis & the Theater of Dionysos.
The Akropolis: The Propylaia, Temple of Athena Nike, the Parthenon, the
Erechtheion. (IN PROGRESS)
Meeting Place of the Ancient Athenian Democratic Assembly, Bema (Speaker's
Platform), Sanctuary of Zeus Hypsistos.
Support Archaeological Research!
If you have enjoyed learning about the monuments of ancient Athens, and
if you believe in the importance of studying ancient civilizations, there
are several things you can do RIGHT NOW to help support archaeological
research. We would especially like to recommend two: FIRST, please write
to your congressional representatives and urge them to continue funding
the National Endowment for the Humanities and the National Science
Foundation. SECOND, please consider joining your local chapter of the
Archaeological Institute of America or subscribing to ARCHAEOLOGY
Magazine. Your dues will help fund exciting lectures, colloquia,
publications, television specials, and other educational activities designed
to increase our understanding of all human cultures. Share the knowledge!!
THE ANCIENT CITY OF ATHENS has been ranked as one of the TOP
5% of all WWW sites by Point Survey!!!
Copyright ©1995 by Kevin.
T. Glowacki & Nancy L. Klein
Last modified September 7, 1996