Archived Pages from 20th Century!!

The Ancient City of Athens

All images ©1995 by Kevin T. Glowacki & Nancy L. Klein 
Department of Classical Studies 
Indiana University, Bloomington, In 47405

THE ANCIENT CITY OF ATHENS is a photographic archive of the archaeological and architectural remains of ancient Athens (Greece). It is intended primarily as a resource for students of classical languages, civilization, art, archaeology, and history at Indiana University who may wish to take a "virtual tour" of the chief excavated regions and extant monuments. We also hope that this site will be useful to all who have an interest in archaeological exploration and the recovery, interpretation, and preservation of the past.

All of the images presented here are from the personal slide collection of Kevin T. Glowacki and Nancy L. Klein. You are free to download and use unmodified copies of these images for non-commercial purposes providing that you include a reference to this site and copyright notice. If you use any of these images for presentations or papers, or have any comments or suggestions, we would appreciate hearing from you by email or post. (We especially enjoy email from students & teachers in grade school & high school!)

Topography & Monuments of Ancient Athens

When archaeologists use the term "topography" in their work, they usually mean a combination of several different subjects, including 1) the geography & natural resources of a country, 2) the architectural form of a city as it develops over several centuries or even millenia, and 3) the study of different functional areas within a city or its countryside, such as sanctuaries, civic centers, marketplaces, workshops, private houses, & cemeteries. A student of "topography" must be prepared to dabble in subjects such as architecture, art, literature, history, epigraphy, numismatics, religion, politics, physical anthropology, and geology, as well as having an understanding of the methodologies of archaeological excavation and regional survey. Hence, "topography" can be a truly interdisplinary adventure, full of all the things that make classical archaeology such an exciting field to study.

One of the most important sources for the topography of Athens (in particular) and Greek archaeology (in general) is an eye-witness account written by the traveler Pausanias in the 2nd century A.D. Pausanias spent several years traveling throughout Greece and he recorded many fascinating details about the famous cities, temples, and monuments -- which were already considered ancient even in his own day! Athens was one of the first places he visited on his journey and his description of the city provides us with some invaluable clues about the location, form, decoration, function, and historical significance of many prominent monuments. (It provides us with some problems too, since the evidence from modern archaeological excavation does not always readily agree with what Pausanias records. Is it a matter of physical preservation? Or a problem with our methods of archaeological interpretation? Or could it be that sometimes Pausanias and/or his tour guides got a few of the "facts" mixed up -- a phenomenon all too familiar to any modern traveler who has tried to absorb all of the sights & sounds & history of one of the great cities of the world!).

Of the many possible ways in which THE ANCIENT CITY OF ATHENS could have been organized, we have chosen to present the monuments in essentially the same order as they were visited by Pausanias. For each section, we have also provided a "link" to an English translation of Pausanias from the PERSEUS Project (a great website where you can learn much more about ancient Greek culture, literature, history, and art!). Although not everything mentioned by Pausanias has been preserved, and despite the fact that Pausanias tended to omit monuments of the Roman period (which were, after all, "modern" as far as he was concerned), we think that this is a natural and effective way to structure our "virtual tour" of the city. KALO TAXIDI!

Support Archaeological Research!

If you have enjoyed learning about the monuments of ancient Athens, and if you believe in the importance of studying ancient civilizations, there are several things you can do RIGHT NOW to help support archaeological research. We would especially like to recommend two: FIRST, please write to your congressional representatives and urge them to continue funding the National Endowment for the Humanities and the National Science Foundation. SECOND, please consider joining your local chapter of the Archaeological Institute of America or subscribing to ARCHAEOLOGY Magazine. Your dues will help fund exciting lectures, colloquia, publications, television specials, and other educational activities designed to increase our understanding of all human cultures. Share the knowledge!!

[Point Survey] THE ANCIENT CITY OF ATHENS has been ranked as one of the TOP 5% of all WWW sites by Point Survey!!! 

[AncientSites] [City.Net] [ROMARCH.Home Page]

Copyright ©1995 by Kevin. T. Glowacki & Nancy L. Klein 
Last modified September 7, 1996